Comparison of different mass transport equations for wind erosion quantification purposes in southwest Iran: A wind tunnel study

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Soil Science, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Mechanization and Bio System Mechanics, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Natural Resources Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of three mathematical models (power, exponential and logarithmic functions) for the calculation of the horizontal mass transport (HMT), as compared to the linear spline interpolation for the Cyclone Dust Sampler (CDS) and one with a Cone (CDSC), modified Wilson and Cooke trap (MWAC) and big spring number eight (BSNE). For the purposes of this study, wind erosion was measured at wind velocities of 2–7 ms−1 on a clay loam soil in wind tunnel experiments. The test results showed that the HMT of BSNE, MWAC, CDS, and CDSC samplers, calculated by these equations, fitted well to each other (p<0.01), such that the HMTs of MWAC (HMTM), CDS (HMTS), CDSC (HMTSC), respectively, were 1.10-1.45, 2.28-2.45, 2.48-2.81 times higher than that of BSNE (HMTB), depending on the equation used. The power equation yielded the best adjustments to HMF as a function of the height. Moreover, the relative efficiencies of CDS, CDSC, and MWAC varied between 140-200%, 220-540%, and 410-860%, respectively. Compared to the MWAC sampler, CDS and CDSC samplers showed a rapid drop in relative efficiency with increasing wind speed. These higher efficiencies of the CDS and CDSC relative to BSNE were attributed to its cyclone design. Adding cone to the CDSC sampler increases its efficiency compared to the CDS sampler, protects the settled dust from resuspension.

Keywords


Alpert, P., E. Ganor, 2001. Sahara mineral dust measurements from TOMS: comparison to surface observations over the Middle East for the extreme dust storm, March 14–17, 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 106; 18275–18286.

Anderson, R.S., B. Hallet, 1986. Sediment transport by wind: toward a general model. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 97; 523–535.

Bagnold, R.A., 1941. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London. 226 p.

Basaran, M., G. Erpul, O. Uzun, D. Gabriels, 2011. Comparative efficiency testing for a newly designed cyclone type sediment trap for wind erosion measurements.    Journal of Geomorphology, 130; 343–351.

Buseck, P.R., M. Posfai, 1999. Airborne minerals and related aerosol particles: effects on climate and the environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96; 3372–3379.

Chen, W., Z. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Han, 1996. Vertical distribution of wind-blown sand flux in the surface layer, Taklimakan Desert, Central Asia. Physical Geography, 17; 193– 218.

Chepil, W.S., N.P. Woodruff, 1957. Sedimentary characteristics of dust storms: II. Visibility and dust concentration. American Journal of Science, 255; 104–114.

Cornelis, W.M., D. Gabriels, 2003. A simple low-cost sand catcher for wind-tunnel simulations. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 28; 1033–1041.

Cortes, C., A. Gil, 2007. Modelling the gas and particle flow inside cyclone separators. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33; 409–452.

Dong, Z., X. Liu, H. Wang, A. Zhao, X. Wang, 2003. The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud: a wind tunnel investigation. Geomorphology. 49; 219–230.

Erell, E., H. Tsoar, 1999. Spatial variations in the aeolian deposition of dust the effect of a city: a case study in Be'er-Sheva, Israel. Atmospheric Environment, 33; 4049–4055.

Feras, Y., G. Erpul, P. Bogman, W.M. Cornelis, D. Gabriels, D., 2008. Determination of efficiency of Vasaline slide and Wilson and Cook sediment traps by wind tunnel experiments. Environmental Geology, 55; 741–757.

Fryrear, D.W., 1986. A field dust sampler. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 41; 117–120.

Fryrear, D.W., 1987. Aerosol measurements from 31 dust storms. In: Ariman, T., Veziroglu, T.N. (Eds.), Particulate and Multiphase Flows: Contamination Analysis and Control. Hemisphere Publishing, New York. pp. 407–415.

Fryrear, D.W., J.E. Stout, L.J. Hagen, E.d. Vories, 1991. Wind erosion: Field measurement and analysis. Trans. ASAE, 34; 155-160.

Fryrear, D.W., A. Saleh, 1993. Field wind erosion: vertical distribution. Soil Science, 155; 294–300.

Funk, R., E.L. Skidmore, L.J. Hagen, 2004. Comparison of wind erosion measurements in Germany with simulated soil losses by WEPS. Environmental Modelling & Software, 19; 177–183.

Gerety, K.M., R. Slingerland, 1983. Nature of saltation population in wind tunnel experiments with heterogeneous size-density sands. In: Brookfield, M.E., Ahlbrand, T.S. (Eds.), Eolian Sediments and Processes: Developments in Sedimentology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 115– 131.

Goossens, D., Z. Offer, 2000. Wind tunnel and field calibration of six Aeolian dust samplers. Atmospheric Environment, 34; 1043–1057.

Goossens, D., Z. Offer, G. London, 2000. Wind tunnel and field calibration of five Aeolian sand traps. Geomorphology, 35; 233–252.

Greeley, R., J.I. Iversen, 1985. Wind as A Geological Process on Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 33 pp.

Greeley, R., S.H. Williams, J.R. Marshall, 1983. Velocities of wind-blown particles in saltation: preliminary laboratory and field measurements. In: Brookfield, M.E., Ahlbrandt, T.S. (Eds.), Eolian Sediments and Processes: Developments in  Sedimentology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 133– 148.

Inyang, H.I., S. Bae, 2006. Impacts of dust on environmental systems and human health. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 132; v–vi.

Jones, C.G., M. Shachak, 1990. Fertilization of the desert soil by rock-eating snails. Nature, 346; 839–841.

Kuntze, H., R. Beinhauer, G. Tetzlaff, 1990. Quantification of soil erosion by wind, I. Final Report of the BMFT project. Project No. 0339058 A, B, C. Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Hannover, Germany (in German).

Lal, R., 1990. Soil erosion in tropics: Principles and management. McGraw Hill Inc., New York Germany.

Lefèvre, R.-A., P. Ausset, 2002. Atmospheric pollution and building materials: stone and glass. In: Siegesmund, S., Vollbrecht, A., Weiss, T. (Eds.), Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies: Geological Society Special Publications, vol. 205. pp. 329–345.

Liblik, V., M. Pensa, A. Rätsep, 2003. Air pollution zones and harmful pollution levels of alkaline dust for plants. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. Focus, 3; 199–210.

Michels, K., 1994. Wind erosion in the southern
      Sahelian zone: Extent, control, and effects on millet
      production. Verlag Ulrich E. Graucr, Stuttgart.
Mendez, M.J., R. Funk, D.E. Buschiazzo, 2011. Field
     wind erosion measurements with Big Spring Number
     Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook
     (MWAC) samplers. Journal of Geomorphology, 129;
     43-48.

Namikas, S.L., 2003. Field measurement and numerical
     modelling of Aeolian mass flux distributions on a
     sandy beach. Sedimentology, 50; 303–326.

Nickling, W.G., C. McKenna Neuman, 1997. Wind
     tunnel evaluation of a wedge-shaped aeolian sediment
     trap. Geomorphology, 18; 333-345.

Panebianco, J.E., D.E. Buschiazzo, T.M. Zobeck, 2010.
     Comparison of different mass transport calculation
     methods for wind erosion quantification purposes.
     Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35; 1548–
     1555.

Rasmussen, K.R., H.E. Mikkelsen, 1998. On the
     efficiency of vertical array Aeolian field traps.
     Sedimentology, 45; 789–800.

Reynolds, R., J. Belnap, M. Reheis, P. Lamothe, F.
     Luiszer, 2001. Aeolian dust in Colorado Plateau soils:
     nutrient inputs and recent change in source.
     Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
     the United States of America, 98; 7123–7127.

Riksen, M., 2004. Off-site effects of wind erosion on
     agricultural land in Northwestern Europe. In:
     Goossens, D., Riksen, M. (Eds.), Wind Erosion and
     Dust Dynamics: Observations, Simulations,
     Modelling. ESW Publications, Wageningen, pp. 103–
     121.

Smith, J.L., K. Lee, 2003. Soil as a source of dust and
     implications for human health. Advances in
     Agronomy, 80; 1–32.

Stout, J.E., T.M. Zobeck, 1997. Intermittent saltation,
     Sedimentology, 44; 959-970.

Vories, E.D., D.W. Fryrear, 1991. Vertical distribution
     of wind eroded soil over a smooth, bare field.
     Transactions of the ASAE, 34; 1763– 1768.

Wilson, S.J., R.U. Cooke, 1980. Wind erosion. In:
     Kirkby, M.J., Morgan, R.P.C. (Eds.), Soil Erosion.
     Wiley, Chichester. pp. 217–251.

Wu Z. 2003. Geomorphology of Wind-drift Sands an.
     and their controlled engineering. Beijing: Science
     Press.

Zingg, A.W., 1953. Some characteristics of Aeolian sand
     movement by saltation process.Edition du Centre
     National de la Recherche Scientifique, 7; 197–208.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zobeck, T.M., 2002. Erosion by wind, Field
     Measurement of. In Encyclopedia of Soil Science.
     Marcel Dekker. pp. 503–507.

Zobeck, T.M., G. Sterk, R. Funk, J.L. Rajot, J.E. Stout,
     R.S. Van Pelt, 2003. Measurement and data
     analysis methods for field-scale wind erosion studies
     and model validation. Earth Surface Processes and
     Landforms, 28; 1163–1188.