National assessment of climate resources for tourism seasonality in Iran using the tourism climate index

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Arid and Mountainous Region Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 ADepartment of Arid and Mountainous Region Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Weather and climate have a strong influence on tourism and the recreation sector, which is a very important industry. Since tourism is becoming one of the main industries all over the world, it plays an important role in promoting national and local economic development. This paper attempts to show the role of climate in tourism seasonality and tries to study the impacts of climate resources on tourism seasonality using the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) in Iran. This index systematically evaluates climatic conditions for tourism activities using climate parameters. To assess Tourism Climate Index in Iran, 54 weather stations were selected. The results have been generalized in 12 monthly world maps using ArcGIS10.1. According to the results, April and October are the best time for tourism during the year, actually more area of Iran has the good potential during these months. In January and February, potential of TCI decreased and the lowest area are located in suitable class. While, based on Scott and Mc Boyle classification summer peak, dry season peak, Bi-modal shoulder peak and winter peak can be seen in Iran, most of Iran is classified in Bi-modal shoulder peak. South, south east and west of Iran have the best condition in winter peak. The peak in dry seasons including dry and without rainy seasons have the best situations in west north and east parts of Iran. Bi-modal shoulder peak, in spring and autumn, are seen in north, all east and center of Iran toward west and west east.


Babaeiana, I., R. Modiriana, M. Karimiana, M. Zarghami, 2015. Simulation of climate change in Iran during 2071-2100 using PRECIS regional climate modelling system. Desert, 20; 123-134.
Bakhtiari, B., A. Bakhtiari, 2013. Determination of tourism climate index in Kerman province. Desert, 18; 113-126.
Brosy, C., K. Zaninovic, A. Matzarakis, 2013. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58; 1369-1381.
Day, J., N. Chin, S. Sydnor, K. Cherkauer, 2013. Weather, climate, and tourism performance: A quantitative analysis. Tourism Management Perspectives, 5; 51–56.
De Freitas, C., 1990. Recreation climate assessment. International Journal Climatology, 10; 89–103.
De Freitas, C. R., 1985. Assessment of human bioclimatic based on thermal response. International Journal Biometeorology, 29; 97–119.
De Freitas, C. R., 2001. Theory, concepts and methods in climate tourism research. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR (eds) Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation. 3–20pp.
De Freitas, C. R., 2003. Tourism climatology: evaluating environmental information for decision making and business planning in the recreation and tourism sector. International Journal Biometeorology, 48; 45–54.
Fang, Y., J. Yin, 2015. National Assessment of Climate Resources for TourismSeasonality in China Using the Tourism Climate Index. Atmosphere, 6; 183-194.
Farajzade, M., A. Ahmadabadi, 2010. Assessment and Zoning of Tourism Climate of Iran Using Tourism Climate Index (TCI).Physical Geographical Research Quaternary, 42; 13-24. 
Farajzade, M., K. Ahmadiyan, 2014. Temporal and spatial analysis of drought in Iran using SPI. Environmental Hazards Journal, 4; 1-16.
Gandomkar, A., 2014. Spatial and temporal distribution of Tourism Climate Index (Case Study: Isfahan Province. Geographical Research, 11; 203-2014.
Hassanvand, A., M. Soleimanitabar, H. Yazdanpanah, 2011. Spatial interpretation of climatic comfort of Lorestan province based on TCI .Spatial Planning, 1; 121-144.
Hein, L., M. Metzger, J. Moreno, 2009. A potential impacts of climate change on tourism; a case study for study for Spain. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1; 170-178.
Iran Tourism Organization, 2008. Project about tourism and economic of Iran, Tehran, Iran, 120 pp.
Jacqueline, M. H., S.J.T. Richard, 2007. The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study. Regional Environmental Change, 7; 161–172
Jansen-Verbecke, M., 2001. Urban tourism and tourism research. In: Wall Contemporary perspectives on tourism. Department of Geography Publication Series, Occasional Paper, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, 129–142 pp.
Kubokawa, H., I. Tsuyoshi, S. Masaki, 2014. Evaluation of the Tourism Climate Index over Japan in a Future Climate Using a Statistical Downscaling Method. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 92; 37−54
Lemaire, J. P., M. Viassone, 2014. Tourist destinations positioning: From indexes to managerial implications. Journal of Investment and Management, 4; 30-38.
Li, H., C. Goh, K. J. Hung, L. Chen, 2017. Relative Climate Index and Its Effect on Seasonal Tourism Demand. Journal of Travel Research. DOI:
Matzarakis, A., 2006. Weather- and climate-related information for tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Planning and Development, 3; 99–115.   
Matzarakis, A., C. De Freitas, D. Scott, 2004. Advances in Tourism Climatology. Ber.Meteorol. Inst. Univ. Freiburg Nr. 12.
Matzarakis, A., C.R. De Freitas, 2001. International Society of Biometeorology, Commission on Climate Tourism and Recreation. Proc. of the First Int. Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation. December, Halkidiki, Greece.
Mieczkowski, Z., 1988. The Tourism Climate Index: A Method for Evaluating World Climates for Tourism. The Canadian Geographer, 29; 220-233.
Moreno, A., B. Amelung, 2009. Climate change and tourism comfort on Europe's Beaches insummer, A summer. A Reassessment, Coastal management, 37; 550-568.
Perry, A., 1997. Recreation and tourism. In: Thompson RD, Perry AH (eds) Applied climatology. Routledge, London, 240–248pp.
Rahimi, D., S. H. Mousavi, B. Hasankhani, 2016. Zoning and Assessment of Tourism Climate of Iran's Desert Regions. Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal (DEEJ), 5; 51–61
Roshan, Gh., R. Yousefi, J. M. Fitchett, 2016. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60; 33–52.
Saraf Sari, B., T. Jalali, A. Kamali, 2010. Zoning climate tourism of Arasbaran region using TCI. Geographic Space, 10; 63-88. 
Scott, D., G. Mc Boyle, 2001. Using a “Tourism Climate Index” to Examine the Implications of Climate Change for Climate as a Tourism Resource. International Society of Biometeorology, Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation. Retrieved from http://www.mif.unifreiburg. de/isb/ws/ report.htm.
Scott, D., G. Mc Boyle, M. Schwartzentruber, 2004. Climate change and the distribution of climatic resources for tourism in North America.  Climate Research, 27; 105–117.  
Scott, D., M. Rutty, B. Amelung, M. Tang, 2016. An Inter-Comparison of the Holiday Climate Index (HCI) and the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) in Europe. Atmosphere, 7; 80-89; DOI 10.3390/atmos7060080.
Smith, K., 1993. The influence of weather and climate on recreation and tourism. Weather, 48; 398–404.
Wall, G., 1992. Tourism alternatives in an era of global climate change. In: Smith V, Eadington W (eds) Tourism alternatives. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 194–236 pp.
World Tourist Organization, 1998. Tourism 2020 vision. WTO Publications Unit, World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain.
World Tourist Organization, 1999. Tourism highlights 1999. WTO Publications Unit, World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain.
WTTC, 2014. Economic Impact of Travel and Tourism. Annual Update: Summary. Available online: c-impact-summary-2014-publie-le-030320142ppa4- final_1395222502243-