Investigating the relation between built area, occupant number and energy consumption in first modern residential buildings (Case study: 1970s houses in the semi-arid climate of Shiraz, Iran)

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Art & Architecture, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Architecture, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Energy consumption in the residential sector is a complex socio-technical problem that can be explained using a
combination of physical, demographic and behavioural characteristics of a house and its occupants. In this paper, by
using the energy consumption data for the residential sector of Shiraz in Iran, the effect of built area (BA) and
occupant number (Occ) on annual energy consumption (Ec) was investigated. Ten houses from the first modern
period of the city were selected randomly from 1971 up to 1991. It was found that the built area and Occ did not have
a direct impact on energy consumption in Shiraz’s residential buildings; however, the household behaviours and
houses’ building construction directly affected energy saving. Houses with maximum BA or maximum annual energy
consumption were not the same; the same held for Occ. The average annual energy consumption per capita of 1 m2
built area of the case studies was 0.087, and for each occupant it was 2.487.