Effect of organic coats with superabsorbent polymers on improving the germination and early vigor Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) seeds under salinity stress

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


     Salinity is a major environmental stress negatively influencing germination and seedling establishment in a wide variety of crops. The objective of this study was to use the organic materials with superabsorbents to improve the emergence rate and seedling traits of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) under salinity stress. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in outdoor pots. Treatments included: organic coats at two levels (C1= peat moss and C2= vermicompost), superabsorbent polymers at seven levels (A1= without superabsorbent, A2-A4= coats with 2, 4, and 6 g superabsorbent of A200 per kg organic material, and A5-A7= coats with 2, 4, and 6 g superabsorbent of F1 per kg organic material), and salinity (S) stress at five levels (0, -2, -4, -6, and -8 bar). Results showed that organic material and the type and amount of superabsorbent significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected emergence, emergence rate, plant vigor index, shoot dry weight, leaf area, specific leaf area, relative water content, and total chlorophyll. Application of superabsorbent polymers with organic material reduced salinity stress in the primary growth stage of Milk thistle. Generally superabsorbent A200 is more effective than superabsorbent F1 and vermicompost coats better are than peat moss coats. 


Abuzar, M., M. Charm, 2014. The effect of
superabsorbent and salinity on some physiological
characteristics of wheat (Triticum. L). 1st National
Conference on Sustainable Management of Soil and
Environmental Resources. Kerman. Iran.
Agrawal, R., 2003. Seed technology .Pub. Co. PVT. LTD.
New Delhi. India.
Ahmadian, M., R. Kalvandi, F. Zand, 2012. Comparison
of solute-specific effects on seed germination
characteristics of SM seed (Silybum marianum L.) at
the same osmotic potential under salinity and drought
stress conditions. Scholars Research Library Annals of
Biological Research. 3 (8); 4145-4153.
Akhzari, D., F. Ghasemi Aghbash, 2014. Effect of salinity
and drought stress on the seedling growth and
physiological traits of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria
zizanioides stapf.). Ecopersia. 1 (4), 339-352.
Arias, D., j. Calvo-Alvarado, J, A. Dohrenbusch, 2007.
Clibration of LAI-2000 to estimate leaf erea index
(LAI) and assessment of its realationship with stand
productivity in six native introduced tree species in
Costa Rica. Forest ecology and management. 247(1);
Bhat, N. R., M. K. Suleiman, H. Al-Menaie, E. H. Al-Ali,
L. AL-Mulla., A. Christopher, V. S. Lekha, S. I. Ali,
P. George, 2009. Polyacrylamide Polymer and Salinity
Effects on Water Requirement of Conocarpus
lancifolius and Selected Properties of Sandy Loam
Soil. European Journal of Scientific Research. 25(4);
Dolat Kordestani, M., M. Taghvaei., S.F. Afzali, M.
Zarrei, 2013. The use of organic material for coating
of Calotropis procera L. seeds. Technical Journal of
Engineering and Applied Science. 11; 942-949.
Ellis, R. H, E. H. Roberts, 1981. The quantification of
ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Sciences
Technology. 9; 377-409.
Enjavi, F., M. Taghvaei., H. Sadeghei, A. Hassanli,
2013. The Survey of Superabsorbent Polymer on
Early Vigor and Water use Efficiency of (Calotropis
procera L.) Seedling under Drought Stress. Iranian
journal of range and desert research. 22 (2); 216-230.
Eskandari Nasrabadi, S., R. Ghorbani, P. Rezvani
Moghaddam, M. Nassiri Mahallati, 2014. Effect of
salinity on biomass production and activities of some
key enzymatic antioxisants in Phenological response
of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.]Gaertn.) to
different nutrition systems. Journal of Applied
Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 148–151.
Haban, M., P. Otepka., L. Kobida, M. Habanova, 2009.
Production and quality of milk thistle (Silybum
marianum [L.] Gaertn.) cultivated in cultural
conditions of warmagriclimatic macroregion.
Horticulture Sciences. (Prague). 36 (2); 25–30.
Jamil, A., S. Riaz., M. Ashraf, M.R. Foolad, 2011. Gene
expressionprofiling of plants under salt stress. Plant
Sciences. 30 (5); 435–458.
Masoumi Zavariyan, A., M. Yousefi Rad, M. Asghari,
2015. Effect of seed priming by potassium nitrate on
germination and biochemical indices in Silybum
marianum L. under salinity stress. International
Journal of Life Sciences. 9(1); 23-28.
Massarat, N., A. Siadat., M. Sharafizadeh, B. Habibi,
2015. The effect of priming on germination and
Ebrahimi Moghadam et al. / Desert 24-2 (2019) 207-215 215
growth of maize hybrid SC704 in drought and salinity
stress condition. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 5; 15
Morazzoni, P., E. Bombardelli, 1995. Silybum marianum
(Carduusmarianus), Fitoterapia. 3; 42-66
Munns, R., 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them
together. New Phytology. 167; 645–663.
Nabati, J., M. Kafi., A. Nezami., P. Rezvani Moghadam.,
A. Masomi, M. Zare Mehrjerdi, 2011. Effect of
salinity on biomass production and activities of some
key enzymatic antioxisants in kochia (Kochia
scoparia). Pakisatn Journal Botany. 43(1); 539-548.
Nicols, M.A., W. Heydecker, 1968. Two approaches to
the study of germination date,proc. International Seed
Test. Asso. 33; 531-540.
Puppala, N., J. L. Poindexter, H. L. Bhardwaj, 1999.
Evaluation of salinity tolerance of canola germination.
International Journal Janick (ed.) Perspectives on new
crops and new uses. ASHS. Press, Alexardria, VA. 251
– 253.
Rama, T.R., R.A. Hussien, 2014. A comparison study on
the effect of some growth regulators on the nutrients
content of maize plant under salinity conditions.
Annals of Agricultural Science. 59(1), 89–94
Redmann, R. E., Q. I.M.Q, M. Belyk, 1994. Growth of
transgenic and standard canola. (Brassica napus L.)
varieties in response to soil salinity. Canadian Journal
Plant Sciences. 74(4); 797 – 799.
Rhoades, J.D., F. Chanduvi, S. Lesch, 1999. Soil salinity
assessment, methods and interpretation of electrical
conductivity measurments. Food and agriculture
organization of the united nations.
Ritchi, S. W., H. T. Naguyen, A. S. Holiday, 1990. Leaf
water content and gas exchange parameters of two
wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop
Sciences. 30; 105-111.
Rosta, M.J., M. Soltani, N. Besharat, V. Soltani, M.
Salehi, GH. H, 2013. The Effect of Different Levels of
Superabsorbent Polymer and Water Salinity on Soil
Moisture Retention. Iranian Water Research Journal. 7
(12); 241-244.
Shahbaz, M., M. Ashraf, 2013. Improving salinity
tolerance in cereals. Plant Sciences. 32; 237–249.
Siosemardeh, A., A. Ahmadi, K. Poustini, H.
Ebrahimzadeh, 2004. Stomatal and
nonstomatallimitations to photosynthesis and their
relationship with drought resistance in wheat cultivars.
Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 35 (1); 93-06.
Yamaguchi, T., E. Blumwald, 2005. Developing salttolerant
cropplants: challenges and opportunities.
Trends Plant Sciences. 10 (12); 615–620