Suitability assessment of Saffron cultivation using GIS based multi-criteria decision analysis approach; study area: East-Azerbaijan province

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

2 Department of Physical Geography, Centre for Remote Sensing and GIS, University of Tabriz

Abstract

     In the way of finding economic and tolerable plant to the arid and semi-arid climatic conditions and prevent desertification in these areas, this study aims to assess Agro-climatic suitability for producing Saffron in East-Azerbaijan province based on Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technique. For this goal, several criteria including soil conditions, climatological indicators, topography situation and agro-climatology criteria were taken into account of modeling process. For this to happen, standardization process was performed on criteria and weighting process was done by using of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. GIS based Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was employed for weighted overlapping of indicators and results were achieved based on GIS-MCDA method.  Initial results indicated that East-Azerbaijan province has potential for cultivating of Saffron.  Our research results indicated that about 42.7 percentage (1954416.9 ha) of this province has high suitability for Saffron producing. While, about 55.4 percentage (2537492.0 ha) of the study area has moderate suitability. In addition, about 1.8 percentage (84643.2 ha) of the study area represents low suitability. The results also indicated that, sum of sun hours and precipitation were supposed as important and limiting factors in the cultivation of this plant respectively. The founds of this research are great of importance for the purpose of regional planning in East-Azerbaijan province and also important in terms of developing methodology for precision agriculture which is one the main aspects of modern agriculture. 
 

Keywords


Alavi-Shahri, H., M. Mahajeri, M.A. Falaki, 1994. Effects of plant density on saffron yield. Abstracts of the Second National Symposium on Saffron and Medicinal Plants. 8-9 November 1994, Gonabad, Iran.   

Alavi-Zadeh, S.A.M., A. Monazzam Esmaeel Pour, M. Hossein Zadeh Kermani, 2013. Possibility study of areas with potential cultivation of saffron in Kashmar plain using GIS. Saffron Agronomy and Technology, 1; 71-95.

Alizadeh, A., N. Sayari, J. Ahmadian, A. Mohamadian, 2009. Study for zoning the most appropriate time of irrigation of saffron (Crocus Sativus) in Khorasan Razavi, north and southern provinces. Journal of Water and Soil, 23; 109-118.

Amirghassemi, T., A. Iranshahi, 2008. Saffron the red gold of Iran. 1th ed., Ayandegan Publication, Tehran.

Azizi-Zohan, A.A., A.A. Kamgar-Haghighi, A.R. Sepaskhah, 2009. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) production as influenced by rainfall, irrigation method and intervals. Archive of Agronomy and Soil Science, 55; 547-555.

Azizpur Rahman, M., R.C. Bernd Rusteberga, J.P. Gogub, Lobo Ferreirac, M. Sautera, 2012. A new spatial multi-criteria decision support tool for site selection for implementation of managed aquifer recharge. Journal of Environmental Management, 99; 61–75.

Behdani, M.A., A. Koockeki, M. Nassiri, P. Rezvani, 2008. Models to predict flowering time in main saffron production regions of Khorasan province. Journal of applied science, 8; 907-909.

Benschop, M., 1993. Crocus. In The physiology of flower bulbs; Chap. 19. de Hertog, A.; Le Nard,M.; Eds.; Elsevier Publishers: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Boroushaki, S., J. Malczewski, 2008. Implementing an Extension of the Analytical Hierarchy Process Using Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators with Fuzzy Quantifiers in Arc GIS. Computers and Geosciences, 34; 399-410.   

Boroushaki, S., J. Malczewski, 2010. Using the Fuzzy Majority Approach for GIS-based Multicriteria Group Decision-making. Computers and Geosciences,36; 302-312.

Chen, J., Q. Zhu, 2010. Uncertainty and Decision Strategy Analysis of GIS-based Ordered Weighted Averaging Method. International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA), Kunming. pp. 375-379.

Eftekharzadeh-Maraghei, M.S., 1994. Investigating interaction effect of irrigation frequency and different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on saffron production in Maragheh. Research Report, 114.

Dhar, A.K., 2000. Saffron biology, utilization, agriculture, production and quality. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science, 22; 355–360.

Farajzadeh, M., R.  Mirza Bayati, M. Rahimi, R. Amiri, 2007. Preparation of Saffron Cultivation Suitability Map Based on the Comparison of Different Weighting Methods in GIS Environment. Map Asia publication. Available from:  http://geospatialworld.net/Paper/Application/ArticleView.aspx?aid=219

FAO, 2006. Designing and implementing a geographical information system, A Guide for Managers of Area-wide Pest Management Programmes. IAEA in Austria.

Feizizadeh, B., T. Blaschke, M.H. Rezaei Moghaddam, 2013. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for the Urmia Lake Basin, Iran: A Multi-criteria Evaluation Approach Using GIS. International Journal of Environmental Research, 56; 1-23.

Fischer, G., H.T. Van Velthuizen, M.M. Shah, F.O. Nachtergaele, 2002. Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. 1-155.

Gorsevski, P.V., P. Jankowski, P. E. Gessler, 2006. An Heuristic Approach for Mapping Landslide Hazard by Integrating Fuzzy Logic with Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control and Cybernetics, 35;121-146.

Hossain, M.S., N.G. Das, 2010. GIS-based Multi-criteria Evaluation to Land Suitability Modelling for Giant Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Farming in Companigonj Upazila of Noakhali, Bangladesh. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 70; 172-186.

Kafi, M. 2006. Saffron ecophysiology. In: Kafi, M., A. Koocheki, M.H. Rashed, M. Nassiri, (Eds.), Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Production and Processing. Science Publishers, Enfield.

Kiran Kumari, S.P., V. Sridevi, M.V.V. Chandana Lakshmi, M. Manasa, 2012. Comparative studies and elemental analysis of fertilizer effected medicinal plant samples using Sem-Eds. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences,3; 214-222.

Kumar, R., V. Singh, K. Devi, M. Sharma, M. K. Singh, P. S. Ahuja, 2009. State of Art of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Agronomy: A Comprehensive Review, Food Reviews International, 25:1; 44- 85.

Malczewski, J., 2006. GIS-based Multicriteria Decision Analysis: A Survey of the Literature. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 20; 703-726.

MANR Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2013. Land use land cover mapping for Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Marinoni, O., 2004. Implementation of the analytical hierarchy process with VBA in ArcGIS. Computers and Geosciences,30; 637-646.

Mashayekhi, K., B. Kamkar, A. Soltani, 2006. The Effect of Corm Weight and Environmental Temperature on Flowering Behavior of Saffron (Crocus Sativus). In proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology. 28-30 October, Mashhad, Iran.

Mechan, S., E. Burgess, R. Fealy, 2003. Irish Agricultural Catchments Programmed Protects Water Quality While Supporting Productive Agriculture; In: Farming the Future. ESRI publication, USA.

Meng, Y., J. Malczewski, S. Boroushaki, 2011. A GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis approach for mapping accessibility patterns of housing development sites: A case study in Canmore, Alberta. Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 3; 50-61.

Mennecke, B., L.E. West, 2001. Geographic Information Systems in Developing Countries: Issues in Data Collection, Implementation and Management. Journal of Global Information Management, 9; 45-55.

Meteorological organization of Iran, 2015. Available from http://www.irimo.ir/far/services/climate. Accessed 21th October 2015.

Mirzabayati, R., 2005. The Estimation of saffron-growing areas in neyshabour plain by GIS, thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree master of Geography, University of Tarbiat Modarres,Tehran.

Mohammadi, H., F. Ranjbar, M. Soltani, 2011. Climatic potentials assessment for saffron cultivation in Marvdasht. Geography and Environmental Planning Journal, 43; 33-36.

Nekhay, O., M. Arriaza, J.R. Guzman-Alvarez, 2008. Spatial analysis of the suitability of olive plantations for wildlife habitat restoration. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 65; 49-64.

Razavi, B.M., H. Hosseinzadeh, 2015. Saffron (Crocus sativus) Production and Processing. Science Publishers, Enfield.

Saaty, T.L., 1977. A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 15; 231-281.

Saaty, T.L., L.G. Vargas, 1991. Prediction, Projection and Forecasting. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Sadeghi, S. M., G. Dehnadi-Moghaddam, H. Dooroodian, 2014. Evaluation of effects of date, depth and corm sowing distance on corms growth and stigma yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Langarood, Guilan province. Saffron Agronomy and Technology, 2; 137-144.

Sener, S., E. Sener, R. Karaguzel, 2010. Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent-Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 10; 1010–1023.

Sepaskhah, A.R., A.A. Kamgar-Haghighi, 2009. Saffron Irrigation Regime. International Journal of Plant Production, 3; 1-16.

Statistical center of Iran, 2015. Available from http://www.amar.org.ir/. Accessed 19th September 2015.

Titz, A., 2004. Medicinal herbs and plants – scope for diversified and sustainable extraction. 22-26 July, Bangalore, India.

Vukicevic, J.S., Z. Nedovic-Budic, 2012. GIS based multicriteria analysis in integration of SEA process in to planning, case study: South west region, Republic of Ireland. Interventional Journal of Environmental Research, 6; 1053-1066.

Yahaya, S., C. Ilori, J.S. Whanda, J. Edicha, 2010. Land fill site selection for municipal solid waste management using geographic information system and multicriteria evaluation. American Journal of Scientific Research, 10; 34-49.